Thinking About Technology
William M. Arkin
Presentation at the DOD National Security Management Course, 10 April 2001
“In the aftermath of Desert Storm, no image of violence was as stark as that of the beating of Los Angeles motorist Rodney King. The videotape was plastered all over television, a kind of visual catharsis to censorship and virtual, seemingly inhuman firepower. The black and white video, shaky, and grainy, surreptitious, had instant credibility. It was amazingly similar to gun camera video clips that had become commonplace in the Pentagon’s telling of the very unanimated story of their air war.
Gun camera video tapes, of course, are carefully chosen for the audience’s entertainment during an otherwise difficult to imagine technological enterprise. Press briefings and video selections emphasize airpower’s perfection and downplays its destructiveness.
Is it the case that the very nature of airpower, and of emerging cyberwarfare, defies heroic description? There is, of course, real danger for the pilots. But bombing soon enough becomes a production process, in which the occasional pilot death is more akin to an industrial accident than the result of what we think of as military combat.
We found ourselves at the end of the Gulf War, in the midst of old-fashioned massacre called the Highway of Death. General Schwarzkopf, adamant that he would not be another commander disgraced for letting a beaten enemy get away, let fighter-bombers be his cavalry. Almost immediately, a panic set in amongst military and political leaders in Washington and London at the scale of killing on the ground. They had caused it, even willed it. But they had not imagined what it would be like. Somehow when the video screen turned buildings and bridges in the cross hairs to human beings, a tide shifted. Despite all that Iraq had done, death became awfully hard for the American government and military leaders to justify.
It is such an uplifting anti-heroic approach to death, one that goes back to ancient times, one that is the very basis for what we call the laws of war. For a soldier it means that any death on the battlefield means potentially ones own death. The more anti-heroic we are, the more we come to grips with the limitations of the use of force and our own ambivalence about casualties, the more we see this issue as not about the deficiencies of this or that administration or policy-maker, the more we recognize our developing aesthetic about war, the better we will protect human life and the environment.”